mRNA categories:

Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a physiological process that occurs in every nucleated cell. Apoptotic changes are characterized by cell membrane blebbing, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation. Since apoptosis is a highly regulated process, a number of cell signaling pathways including caspases and proteases are involved in its initiation and execution. There has been growing interest in apoptosis research in part due to the essential role of this phenomenon in a number of disorders including developmental abnormalities, depletion of immune cells during viral infection, and carcinogenesis. Targeted genetic mutations, gene knockout and overexpression studies have significantly contributed to our understanding of the pathways involved in apoptotic processes. The overexpression studies, in particular, have used plasmid DNA and viral vectors to define the role of specific caspases. Emerging research indicates that mRNA mimetics have superior translational efficiency than plasmid DNA and thus provides a viable alternative to re-express knocked-out or disrupted proteins that are involved in apoptotic processes including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or its receptors, p53, caspases 3, 8, 9, apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (APAF1), Fas-associated protein with death domatin (FADD), Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer (BAK), Bcl-2 associated X protein (BAX) and yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1).

P53 (TP53)
YAP1 (Isoform YAP1-2alpha)
YAP1 (Isoform YAP1-2gamma) 

Type I Cytokine Receptors include interleukin receptors, colony stimulating factor receptors, and hormone receptors whereas Type II Cytokine Receptors include inter feron receptors and cytokine receptors that bind to interleukin-10 family. Chemokine Receptors include receptors for C-C chemokine Type 1 (CCR1) and C-X-C Chemokine Type 4 (CXCR4). TGF beta Receptors include receptors for TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2. The Immunoglobulin Superfamily include interleukin-1 receptor, interleukin-18 receptor, and c-Kit receptor. Finally, the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Family include immune checkpoint molecules such as CD27, tumor markers such as CD30, and co-stimulatory molecules such as CD40. Due to their importance in cytokine-mediated immune response, cytokine receptors are actively pursued in biomedical research. Research has proven that mRNA mimetics have superior translational efficiency than recombinant DNA. In this regard, cytokine receptors may be expressed more efficiently using mRNA mimetics encoding these receptors. 

Chemokines Receptors
Interleukins Receptors
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptors
Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) Receptors
Interferons Receptors 
Cytokine Receptors

Cytokines are a family of cell signaling proteins that include Chemokines, Interleukins, Tumor Necrosis Factors (TNFs), Transforming Growth Factors (TGFs), Inter ferons, and Colony Stimulating Factors (CSFs). Cytokines are produced by immune and non-immune cells to modulate the immune system including response to microbial infection, inflammation, carcinogenesis, as well as control the maturation, growth and responsiveness of defined cell types. Some of the cell types that secrete cytokines include lymphocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and stromal cells. Cytokines have been demonstrated to be involved in a number of diseases including cancer, cardiovascular, neurological and immune-mediated disorders. Drug discovery and development efforts have produced several recombinant DNA and recombinant protein-based cytokines as therapy to treat a number of disorders including anemia (using recombinant erythropoietin), neutropenia (G-CSF), thrombocytopenia (IL-11), cancer (IL-2), bone disorders (interferon gamma), hepatitis and multiple sclerosis (interferon alpha/beta). Research has proven that mRNA mimetics have superior translational efficiency than recombinant DNA and, unlike recombinant proteins, can be endogenously modified in vivo.

Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)
Colony-Stimulating Factors (CSFs)

This discipline blends the biology of regeneration, metamorphosis and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Molecular understanding of the signaling pathways involved in developmental processes including cell growth and differentiation is an important component of developmental biology and regenerative medicine. For example, during embryogenesis, the cell mass that forms during gastrulation is converted into three germ layers namely ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. The differential expression of genes in these germ layers is controlled by sets of transcription factors and other molecules to influence cell fate. Among these transcription factors are a family of genes known as Paired box (PAX). PAX proteins are essential in early mammalian development and tissue specification. Currently, there are nine members of the PAX family with functions extending from segmentation of embryos, spermatogenesis, differentiation of B cells, development of optic nerve and myogenesis. Ectopic expression of PAX genes has provided fundamental insights into the differential role of the family members in health and disease. Future studies using mRNA mimetics have the potential to efficiently express PAX genes as well as use these transcripts as therapeutic agents to treat PAX-associated disorders such as renal-coloboma syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome and oligomeganephronia. PhaRNA, LLC has a stock pile of mRNA mimetics encoding all the members of the PAX family.

Developmental Biology

Advancing age is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes and heart attack. Some of the derangements that manifest with advancing age are DNA damage, telomere erosion, genome instability, mutagenesis and cellular senescence. These derangements are in part mediated by dysfunction of genes that are involved in genome integrity and cellular plasticity. Some of these key genes include the telomerase enzyme complex including telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), telomerase RNA (TERC), dyskerin, and subunits of the shelterin complex, as well as sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Proof-of-concept genetic studies have reported that TERT reactivation increases longevity and favorably modulates cardiovascular diseases. More recently, it has been demonstrated that introduction of exogenously expressed TERT in the form of modified messenger RNA (mmRNA) increases TERT enzymatic activity and transiently extends telomere length in primary human cells. This technology may be able to delay cellular and tissue senescence, and increase the proliferative capacity of cells without immortal transformation. PhaRNA, LLC has an inventory of mRNA mimetics encoding several members of the aging-associated genes. In the event that we don't have in stock, we can custom make mRNA transcripts encoding your gene of interest.

Human TERT mRNA Mimetic
Human TERT-CI (D712A)
Human TERT 5'-3xFLAG
Human TERT 3'-3xFLAG
Human TERT 5'-3xFLAG 3'-NLS
Human TERT CI (D712A) 5'-3xFLAG
Human TERT CI (D712A) 3'-3xFLAG
Human TERT CI (D712A) 5'-3xFLAG 3'-NLS
Mouse Tert
Mouse Terc
Genome Integrity Associated Genes

Aiming to meet the growing demands of the scientific and medical communities in providing high-quality long ribonucleic acid (RNA) generation services, PhaRNA, LLC, was founded by scientists with extensive experience in scientific and medical research.

Our proprietary technology guarantees the production of RNA species that can be translated effectively and with great stability. In vitro transcribed (IVT)-RNA constructs encoding messenger RNA (mRNA), long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), and other RNA species of 150 nucleotides or longer are the company’s primary areas of emphasis.

We guarantee high-quality RNA species capable of effective translation and stability. Our highly qualified scientific team can help with the design, optimization, and synthesis of specific mRNA. Our cutting-edge R&D RNA laboratory can provide premium-grade RNA products for IND and pre-IND efficacy and toxicity investigations.

Visit the biggest RNA catalog on the planet. You can contact us personally for individualized RNA orders and general advice.


“mGFP mRNA we bought for Pharna was good. We got very good transfection and GFP fluorescence was bright.”

  • Bindu Thapa (University of Alberta)

“I’m excited to inform you that the manuscript we had submitted last year has been accepted for publication in Stem Cells. It includes some data generated using the TERT and GFP mmRNA from your company. We look forward to being able to collaborate with you again in the future!”

  • Nirmala Hariharan  (University of California – Davis)