WORLD’s LARGEST CATALOG OF OFF‐THE‐SHELF mRNA PRODUCTS
PhaRNA, LLC offer several synthetic mRNAs encoding for some of the most common reporter proteins including Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), GFP-NLS (nuclear GFP localization), mCherry, firefly Luciferase (fLuc), renilla Luciferase (rLuc), gaussia Luciferase (gLuc) and beta-galactosidase (Gal). Synthetic mRNAs encoding for reporter proteins can be readily assayed after translation and therefore used as control markers for mRNA packaging and delivery optimization in vitro and in vivo. Each reporter protein mRNA is synthesized on error free sequence verified plasmid DNA based (non-PCR product) template with built-in constant poly-157A tail and enzymatically Cap1 caped, providing close to 100% capping efficiency and therefore superior mRNA stability and translatability.
Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a physiological process that occurs in every nucleated cell. Apoptotic changes are characterized by cell membrane blebbing, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation. Since apoptosis is a highly regulated process, a number of cell signaling pathways including caspases and proteases are involved in its initiation and execution. There has been growing interest in apoptosis research in part due to the essential role of this phenomenon in a number of disorders including developmental abnormalities, depletion of immune cells during viral infection, and carcinogenesis. Targeted genetic mutations, gene knockout and overexpression studies have significantly contributed to our understanding of the pathways involved in apoptotic processes. The overexpression studies, in particular, have used plasmid DNA and viral vectors to define the role of specific caspases. Emerging research indicates that mRNA mimetics have superior translational efficiency than plasmid DNA and thus provides a viable alternative to re-express knocked-out or disrupted proteins that are involved in apoptotic processes including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or its receptors, p53, caspases 3, 8, 9, apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (APAF1), Fas-associated protein with death domatin (FADD), Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer (BAK), Bcl-2 associated X protein (BAX) and yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1).
YAP1 (Isoform YAP1-2alpha)
YAP1 (Isoform YAP1-2gamma)
Type I Cytokine Receptors include interleukin receptors, colony stimulating factor receptors, and hormone receptors whereas Type II Cytokine Receptors include inter feron receptors and cytokine receptors that bind to interleukin-10 family. Chemokine Receptors include receptors for C-C chemokine Type 1 (CCR1) and C-X-C Chemokine Type 4 (CXCR4). TGF beta Receptors include receptors for TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2. The Immunoglobulin Superfamily include interleukin-1 receptor, interleukin-18 receptor, and c-Kit receptor. Finally, the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Family include immune checkpoint molecules such as CD27, tumor markers such as CD30, and co-stimulatory molecules such as CD40. Due to their importance in cytokine-mediated immune response, cytokine receptors are actively pursued in biomedical research. Research has proven that mRNA mimetics have superior translational efficiency than recombinant DNA. In this regard, cytokine receptors may be expressed more efficiently using mRNA mimetics encoding these receptors.
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptors
Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) Receptors
Cytokines are a family of cell signaling proteins that include Chemokines, Interleukins, Tumor Necrosis Factors (TNFs), Transforming Growth Factors (TGFs), Inter ferons, and Colony Stimulating Factors (CSFs). Cytokines are produced by immune and non-immune cells to modulate the immune system including response to microbial infection, inflammation, carcinogenesis, as well as control the maturation, growth and responsiveness of defined cell types. Some of the cell types that secrete cytokines include lymphocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and stromal cells. Cytokines have been demonstrated to be involved in a number of diseases including cancer, cardiovascular, neurological and immune-mediated disorders. Drug discovery and development efforts have produced several recombinant DNA and recombinant protein-based cytokines as therapy to treat a number of disorders including anemia (using recombinant erythropoietin), neutropenia (G-CSF), thrombocytopenia (IL-11), cancer (IL-2), bone disorders (interferon gamma), hepatitis and multiple sclerosis (interferon alpha/beta). Research has proven that mRNA mimetics have superior translational efficiency than recombinant DNA and, unlike recombinant proteins, can be endogenously modified in vivo.
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)
Colony-Stimulating Factors (CSFs)
This discipline blends the biology of regeneration, metamorphosis and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Molecular understanding of the signaling pathways involved in developmental processes including cell growth and differentiation is an important component of developmental biology and regenerative medicine. For example, during embryogenesis, the cell mass that forms during gastrulation is converted into three germ layers namely ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. The differential expression of genes in these germ layers is controlled by sets of transcription factors and other molecules to influence cell fate. Among these transcription factors are a family of genes known as Paired box (PAX). PAX proteins are essential in early mammalian development and tissue specification. Currently, there are nine members of the PAX family with functions extending from segmentation of embryos, spermatogenesis, differentiation of B cells, development of optic nerve and myogenesis. Ectopic expression of PAX genes has provided fundamental insights into the differential role of the family members in health and disease. Future studies using mRNA mimetics have the potential to efficiently express PAX genes as well as use these transcripts as therapeutic agents to treat PAX-associated disorders such as renal-coloboma syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome and oligomeganephronia. PhaRNA, LLC has a stock pile of mRNA mimetics encoding all the members of the PAX family.
Growth factors including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are important molecules that control cellular growth, proliferation, and differentiation. For example, VEGF, FGF and PDGF support the formation and growth of blood vessels while EGF enhances bone regeneration. Additional research shows the essential role of growth factors in wound healing and carcinogenesis. Similar to cytokines, growth factors have been used in medicine to treat a number of disorders including anemia, leukemias and cardiovascular disease to stimulate angiogenesis. The growth factors in medical use so far have been produced using recombinant DNA or recombinant protein approaches. Research has proven that mRNA mimetics have superior translational efficiency than recombinant DNA and, unlike recombinant proteins, can be endogenously modified in vivo.
Vascular Endothelial Growth factors (VEGFs)
Platelet-derived Growth factors (PDGFs)
Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs)
Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGFs)
Epidermal Growth Factors (EGFs)
Advancing age is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes and heart attack. Some of the derangements that manifest with advancing age are DNA damage, telomere erosion, genome instability, mutagenesis and cellular senescence. These derangements are in part mediated by dysfunction of genes that are involved in genome integrity and cellular plasticity. Some of these key genes include the telomerase enzyme complex including telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), telomerase RNA (TERC), dyskerin, and subunits of the shelterin complex, as well as sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Proof-of-concept genetic studies have reported that TERT reactivation increases longevity and favorably modulates cardiovascular diseases. More recently, it has been demonstrated that introduction of exogenously expressed TERT in the form of modified messenger RNA (mmRNA) increases TERT enzymatic activity and transiently extends telomere length in primary human cells. This technology may be able to delay cellular and tissue senescence, and increase the proliferative capacity of cells without immortal transformation. PhaRNA, LLC has an inventory of mRNA mimetics encoding several members of the aging-associated genes. In the event that we don't have in stock, we can custom make mRNA transcripts encoding your gene of interest.
Human TERT-CI (D712A)
Human TERT 5'-3xFLAG
Human TERT 3'-3xFLAG
Human TERT 5'-3xFLAG 3'-NLS
Human TERT CI (D712A) 5'-3xFLAG
Human TERT CI (D712A) 3'-3xFLAG
Human TERT CI (D712A) 5'-3xFLAG 3'-NLS
Growth factor receptors bind to growth factors to mediate cell biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. The most common growth factors that utilize these receptors include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and epidermal growth factors (EGF). These growth factors are their receptors have extensively been studied in cardiovascular and cancer research. In cardiovascular research, growth factors such as VEGF have been used as ligands to stimulate angiogenesis whereas in cancer research inhibition of dysregulated growth factor receptors is the premise for several clinically used drugs including inhibitors of VEGF receptor (VEGFR), EGR receptor 1 (HER1), and EGF receptor 2 (HER2). Although small molecules have been successfully developed to target growth factor receptors, RNA in the form of small interference RNA and antisense RNA has been used to block growth factor receptors. By extension, mRNA mimetics to express dominant-negative mutants can be used to selectively target tumorigenic receptors and signaling pathways.
Vasc. Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Receptors
Platelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) Receptors
Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGFs) Receptors
Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGFs) Receptors
Epidermal Growth Factor (EGFs) Receptors
As a major component of the immune system, innate immunity plays vital role in host immune defense from microbial infections. As such, it is involved in the recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection, microbial clearance, and antigen presentation to activate adaptive immunity. These major functions of innate immunity involve activation of the complement cascade and secretion of several cytokines and other bioactive molecules including the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB), protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase R (PKR) and toll-like receptors (TLRs). Accordingly, family members of the innate immune system are being exploited as drug targets to fight infection, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and cancer. So far, small molecules and monoclonal antibodies have been the premier therapeutic interventions targeting the innate immune system. However, the use of mRNA mimetics in the form of vaccine and transcript therapy is an emerging frontier to modify the immune system for therapeutic applications. PhaRNA, LLC has an inventory of mRNA mimetics encoding several members of the innate immune system. In the event that we don't have in stock, we can custom make mRNA transcripts encoding your gene of interest.
Several transcription factors have been used for nuclear reprogramming, differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into somatic cells, and transdifferentiation of one somatic cell type into another. For nuclear reprogramming, a set of “Yamanaka - Thomson Factors” have been used to convert fibroblasts into iPSCs. Subsequently, several studies have differentiated iPSCs into endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, hematopoietic cells, beta cells, hepatocytes, osteoclasts and neurons. In addition, somatic cells such as fibroblasts have been directly converted into endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, hematopoietic cells, as well as the other somatic cell types described above. Almost all of the studies that provided proof-of-concept data for nuclear reprogramming, differentiation and transdifferentiation used recombinant DNA or viruses that have the potential to integrate into the genome and induce undesired effect. By contrast, mRNA mimetics is a non-integrating approach that can efficiently convert cell fate including through nuclear reprogramming.
Endothelial Differentiation Factors
Cardiomyocyte and Myocyte Diffrntiation Factors
Blood and Hematopoietic Differentiation Factors
Beta Cell Differentiation Factors
Hepatocyte Differentiation Factors
Neuronal Differentiation Factors
Osteoclast Differentiation Factors
This category of mRNA mimetics contains growing list of genes that are involved in various cellular and molecular processes. Currently, this list contains transcription factors, stromal cell-derived factors, myocyte-specific enhancers, and genes involved in tissue remodeling. PhaRNA, LLC will continue to grow this ‘miscellaneous’ category by adding a number of genes that are commonly used by biomedical researchers into its archive. In the meantime, if you are interested in having your gene of interest custom made by our scientists, please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org and it is our promise to timely fulfill your needs.
SERPINA1 Z Type Mutant
CXCL12 Isoform Alpha
CXCL12 Isoform Gamma
Aiming to meet the growing demands of the scientific and medical communities in providing high-quality long ribonucleic acid (RNA) generation services, PhaRNA, LLC, was founded by scientists with extensive experience in scientific and medical research.
Our proprietary technology guarantees the production of RNA species that can be translated effectively and with great stability. In vitro transcribed (IVT)-RNA constructs encoding messenger RNA (mRNA), long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), and other RNA species of 150 nucleotides or longer are the company’s primary areas of emphasis.
We guarantee high-quality RNA species capable of effective translation and stability. Our highly qualified scientific team can help with the design, optimization, and synthesis of specific mRNA. Our cutting-edge R&D RNA laboratory can provide premium-grade RNA products for IND and pre-IND efficacy and toxicity investigations.
Visit the biggest RNA catalog on the planet. You can contact us personally for individualized RNA orders and general advice.
“mGFP mRNA we bought for Pharna was good. We got very good transfection and GFP fluorescence was bright.”
- Bindu Thapa (University of Alberta)
“I’m excited to inform you that the manuscript we had submitted last year has been accepted for publication in Stem Cells. It includes some data generated using the TERT and GFP mmRNA from your company. We look forward to being able to collaborate with you again in the future!”
- Nirmala Hariharan (University of California – Davis)