Cell-surface glycoproteins called cytokine receptors bind to cytokines specially and transmit their signals. These receptors allow cells to react to signals produced nearby or in other areas of the organism, allowing them to interact with the extracellular environment. Type I cytokine receptors include those for hormones, colony-stimulating proteins, and interleukin. Type II cytokine receptors include interferon receptors as an illustration. There are two types of chemokine receptors: C-C chemokine type 1 (CCR1) and C-X-C chemokine type 4.
Chemotactic cytokines, another name for chemokines, are a large family of secreted proteins that play a key role in regulating how cells respond by initiating signaling pathways through G-protein-coupled heptahelical chemokine receptors on the cell surface. They are most well-known for their capacity to promote the migration of various cell types, particularly white blood cells. (leukocytes).
Cytokine receptors called interleukin receptors include those for interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interleukin-12, and interleukin-17. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine receptors are the two major interleukin receptor families. Interleukins and interleukin receptors play a significant role in the immune system’s ability to operate. By controlling lymphoid and other cell growth, mobility, and differentiation, they regulate immune response and inflammation.
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptors
A family of membrane proteins known as tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) act as communication nodes to initiate cell death pathways or induce expression of genes critical for cellular differentiation and survival. All TNFs, with the exception of nerve growth factor, are related to classical TNF-alpha.
Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) Receptors
Being a member of the TGF receptor family, transforming growth factor beta (TGF) receptors are single-pass serine/threonine kinase receptors. There are numerous kinds and they can be homo- or heterodimeric. TGF functions as a tumor suppressor and mediates its antiproliferative effects on a range of cell types. In the early phases of tumorigenesis, TGF inhibits cell cycle promotion, and tumor progression necessitates evasion of TGF-mediated antiproliferative effects.
Monocytes, macrophages, T lymphocytes, glia, and neurons all have IFN receptors. IFN receptors have an extracellular ligand-binding domain as well as an intracellular kinase domain that is triggered by the ligand after dimerization. IFN attaches to CNS tissue and its binding varies depending on the part of the brain.